What is carbon disulfide?


Carbon disulfide is also known as carbon bisulfide, is a neurotoxic colorless volatile liquid with chemical formula, CS2. The IUPAC name of carbon disulfide is methane dithione.

Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid in purest form and it is light yellow under impure state. Carbon disulfide has pure chloroform like or ether like odor.

But commercial CS2 has foul smelling odor. The density of carbon disulfide is 1.27 g/cc at 298K temperature. The molar mass of CS2 is 76.13 g / mole.

Read more: Carbon black details.

Carbon disulfide is a non aqueous non-polar solvent. It is used as a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubber and asphalt.

The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry. It is also used as an industrial and chemical non polar solvent. Carbon disulfide is also used in the refining of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

Occurrence of CS2

When sulfur is mixed with carbon or coke and heated to a temperature of about 800–1000°C, carbon and sulfur combine to form CS2.

A small amount of carbon disulfide is also released from volcanic eruptions and wetlands.The primary source of carbon disulfide in the environment is the rayon plant.

Rayon production is the world’s largest emitter of carbon disulfide. Other sources include cellophane, carbon tetrachloride, carbon black and sulfur recovery.

Carbon disulfide production also emits carbon disulfide. About 30 grams of carbon dioxide is emitted from every kilogram of carbon black.

Properties of carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a polar C = S bond, though the dipole moment of carbon disulfide is zero due to its linear structure. The melting point of CS2 is 161.5K and the boiling point is 319.4K.

Since carbon disulfide contains polar C = S bond, it is soluble in polar water solvent. The solubility of CS2 in water is 2.17 g/liter. It is also soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, oil, chloroform, CCl4, formic acid, and dimethyl sulfoxide.

Carbon disulfide is a toxic chemical for human health. It is also irritants for our skin and eye. Carbon disulfide acts as a ligand for many metal complexes in coordination chemistry.

Carbon disulfide acts as a weaker nucleophile. It gives an insoluble material called car-sul or “bridgeman’s black” upon polymerization by photolysis or at high pressure.

What Is Carbon Disulfide Formula?

Molecular formula of carbon disulfide is CS2. The molecular weight of carbon disulfide molecule is 76.14 g/mol. Carbon disulfide molecule contains two C = S bonds. The central carbon atom is sp-hybridized.

Hence carbon disulfide molecule has linear geometry and S = C = S bond angle is 180°. Despite being a polar molecule, the value of the dipole moment of CS2 is zero due to its linear structure.

What is carbon disulfide use?

Uses of carbon disulfide

The main use of carbon disulfide is in the industrial field. It is used to make viscose rayon and cellophane films.

It is a valuable compound in the chemical synthesis of carbon tetrachloride. It is also widely used in the synthesis of organosulfur compounds such as carbon disulfide, metam sodium, xanthetes and dithiocarbamate

Niche uses

It is also used in smoke from airtight storage warehouses, airtight flat storage, bins, grain elevators, railroad box cars, shipholds, barges and cereal mills.

Carbon disulfide is also used in grain smoke, nursery stock, freshly fruit preservation and as soil disinfectant against insects and nematodes.

Health effects

Carbon disulfide is associated with both acute and chronic poisoning with a variety of symptoms. This includes a set of mostly neurological and emotional symptoms, called encephalopathy sulfocarbonica.

Symptoms observed at high concentrations include acute psychosis, paranoia, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal and sexually transmitted diseases, polyneuritis, myopathy, and mood swings.

Effects observed in low concentration include nervous problems, vision problems (burning eyes, response to abnormal light, increased eye pressure), heart problems, high blood pressure, fertility problems, and decreased immunity.

Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide is associated with cardiovascular disease, especially stroke.